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Review says MMR vaccine is effective, does not cause autism

A new review of data from more than 20 million children shows that the MMR vaccine, which protects against measles, mumps, and rubella, is effective and not associated with autism.Health authorities licensed the MMR vaccine for use in 1971 after tests showed that adverse reactions from the combined vaccine were no greater than any from…

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A new review of data from more than 20 million children shows that the MMR vaccine, which protects against measles, mumps, and rubella, is effective and not associated with autism.Health authorities licensed the MMR vaccine for use in 1971 after tests showed that adverse reactions from the combined vaccine were no greater than any from the existing, single vaccines.Governments have since rolled the vaccine out across the globe, leading to the eradication of measles in many countries, including the United States.Despite this, the vaccine has been the subject of much controversy, in particular, due to a 1998 study linking the vaccine to autism. The study was later shown to be fraudulent and was discredited, but not before it received wide publicity, leading to public misconceptions about the vaccine.An updated review of the evidence has now confirmed that the MMR vaccine is effective and not associated with autism. The Cochrane Library, which surveys medical research to help health professionals make evidence-based decisions, has published the review.The latest analysis follows a 2012 review, which concluded that there was good evidence for the safety and effectiveness of the MMR vaccine. This 2020 update includes 74 new studies that researchers have published since 2012.“We wanted to assess the effectiveness, safety, and long- and short-term harms of the MMR vaccines in this updated review,” explains lead author, Dr. Carlo Di Pietrantonj of Italy’s Regional Epidemiology Unit, SeREMI.The updated review includes data on three types of vaccine: MMR; MMRV, which is a combined vaccine that also protects against chickenpox (known clinically as varicella); and MMR+V, which is when healthcare professionals give the MMR vaccine and chickenpox vaccine separately but at the same appointment.In total, the review included 138 studies with data from 23 million children. Some 63% of the studies assessed potential harms from the vaccines (13 million children), while the remaining 37% (10 million children) looked at how effective the vaccines were at preventing the respective diseases.The review found that one dose of the MMR vaccine was 72% effective in preventing mumps, which can cause flu-like symptoms and severe swelling of the salivary glands. Success rates increase to 86% after two doses of the vaccine. From the data the review analyzed, the number of mumps cases would fall from roughly 7% unvaccinated children to 1% of children when they received two doses of the MMR vaccine. For measles, the success rates are much higher. The review found that just one dose of the vaccine would prevent 95% of cases. Receiving two doses of the vaccine is similarly effective and would prevent a further 1% of cases. Vaccinating children with just one dose of MMR would reduce the overall number of measles cases from 7% to below 0.5%, the statistics show.One dose of the vaccine was found to be 89% effective in preventing rubella.Rubella causes a rash in children but can be serious if a woman contracts it during pregnancy, potentially leading to miscarriage or causing deafness in the child. Data on chickenpox, meanwhile, showed that two doses of the vaccine can prevent 95% of cases, even after 10 years. However, the data on chickenpox was from just one study.While clearly effective at preventing viral disease, there are risks from vaccination. Some children may develop a fever or rash following vaccination, for example. The researchers also identified certain associations with the MMR vaccines, such as experiencing fits due to high temperature and a blood clotting condition called idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. However, the research team says the risk of these occurring (less than a 1% chance in both cases) is much lower than the risks that the diseases themselves pose. The scientists also wanted to look specifically at other risks that the public perceives, such as autism. “We wanted to look at evidence for specific harms that have been linked with these vaccines in public debate — often without rigorous scientific evidence as a basis,” explains Dr. Pietrantonj.The review summarizes data from two studies with almost 1.2 million children that show that the rates of autism diagnosis are similar in those receiving the MMR vaccine and those who do not. The researchers also found no evidence for a connection with a host of other diseases the public has previously linked to the vaccine, including encephalitis, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and asthma.On the basis of this data, the scientists continue to recommend the MMR vaccines for global use. “Overall, we think that existing evidence on the safety and effectiveness of MMR/MMRV/MMR+V vaccines supports their use for mass immunization,” says Dr. Pietrantonj.The Cochrane study is an important reminder of the efficacy and importance of the MMR vaccine, particularly in the fight against measles.Despite the availability of the vaccine, more than 140,000 people died from measles in 2018 alone, data from the World Health Organization (WHO) show.Measles remains a leading cause of death in children and there are concerns about a growing number of cases, partly due to anti-vaccination movements. Reported cases have increased by more than 30% worldwide since 2016, while 2019 saw the greatest number of cases in the U.S. in 28 years.These trends are of serious concern for child health. The data from this latest research may provide reassuring evidence on the safety and effectiveness of the MMR vaccine, while supporting continuing efforts to eliminate the disease worldwide.
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“Crazy” 2020 hurricane season matches 2005 in activity, but not storm intensity

CLOSE This year’s Atlantic hurricane season has been so active, forecasters are almost out of names so now they will be moving on to the Greek alphabet. USA TODAYIn early 2005, officials across Florida gathered for the state’s annual hurricane conference, still weary and worn out from a disastrous 2004 hurricane season.The state’s then-health department…

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This year’s Atlantic hurricane season has been so active, forecasters are almost out of names so now they will be moving on to the Greek alphabet.

USA TODAYIn early 2005, officials across Florida gathered for the state’s annual hurricane conference, still weary and worn out from a disastrous 2004 hurricane season.The state’s then-health department director, John Agwunobi, urged the group in a keynote session not to be complacent. In a prescient statement, he warned: Just because four hurricanes struck Florida in 2004 didn’t mean five couldn’t strike in 2005.Phil Klotzbach, a meteorologist at Colorado State University who makes seasonal hurricane forecasts based on climate variables such as ocean temperature and wind currents, remembers that quote – and the season that followed.By the end of 2005, many new records had been set. For the first time in history, the National Hurricane Center turned to Greek alphabet names after running through the list of storm names for the season. And, five hurricanes struck Florida.One of those was Katrina, which went on to devastate a swath of the northern Gulf Coast from New Orleans to Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, making landfall twice on Aug. 29, 2005. It became the fourth deadliest hurricane on record, claiming 1,833 lives and displacing hundreds of thousands of people. One hurricane after another set new records for low barometric pressure, until finally in October, Wilma’s central pressure dropped to 882 mb. (The lower the pressure, the stronger the storm.) That low pressure record still stands today. The 2005 season finally wound to a close with Hurricane Epsilon, only the sixth December hurricane in history. The season that caused more than $124 billion in losses was one many hoped never to repeat.Fifteen years later, to some it seems like déjà vu.Fifteen years ago this weekend, hurricane researcher Mark Sudduth, owner of HurricaneTrack.com, was on his way to Texas for Category 5 Rita. On Sunday, he was on the coast of Texas documenting Beta’s early storm surge flooding.”We saw this coming in April, with the signals of a very warm Atlantic and the La Nina,” Sudduth said.  “When Beta makes landfall it will tie or set the record for the most tropical cyclones to hit the U.S. in a single season. That’s just crazy.”#Beta is now forecast to make landfall in Texas. If it does so, it will be 9th named storm (tropical storms and #hurricanes) to have made landfall in continental US this year. This would tie 2020 with 1916 for most continental US landfalling named storms in a season on record. pic.twitter.com/X0zqvsCIFf— Philip Klotzbach (@philklotzbach) September 19, 2020Given 23 named storms have formed already, Klotzbach said the chances are good that 2020 will surpass 2005 for named storms but not for hurricanes and major hurricanes.After Teddy and Beta, the rest of September looks “pretty quiet,” Klotzbach said. October, however, “looks favorable” for more storms.The latest: Tropical Storm Beta expected to bring flooding rain to Texas coast by MondayFlooding in Freeport, TX from TS #Betapic.twitter.com/SYxvGiCrnP— Mark Sudduth (@hurricanetrack) September 20, 2020The big difference so far between the two seasons, Sudduth said, is “we haven’t had the very long lasting, powerful hurricanes like we did in ’05.”In that regard, Klotzbach said it’s unlikely 2020 will catch up to 2005.  In terms of the intensity and duration of the strongest storms, 2020 is unlikely to equal 2005, Klotzbach said. By the end of 2005, the accumulated cyclone energy — measured by the intensity and duration of all the storms combined — was 250, he said. Right now the Atlantic’s accumulated energy is around 90.  “I think it’s highly questionable we get five more major hurricanes this year to equal 2005,” Klotzbach said.This year will be “hard pressed to approach 2005,” he said. “Of course, it is 2020, so I can’t rule out anything!”Sudduth ageed. “We still have a ways to go,” he said. “You never know.”Dual disasters: How is climate change worsening wildfires and hurricanes?What was the 2005 hurricane season like?Here’s a look at the 2005 season, from a seasonal summary by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information:27 – Named storms, the most in a single season, breaking a record 21 in 1933. As of Saturday, this 2020 season has produced 23 named storms, including two using the Greek alphabet for only the second time in history.  14 – Hurricanes formed, the most in a single season, breaking a record set in 1969. Only eight hurricanes have formed so far in 2020.8 – Major hurricanes with winds of 111 mph or more, storms that were Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson wind scale. Two hurricanes reached that level of intensity this year so far, Laura and Teddy.7 – Storms that made landfall in the U.S: Arlene, Cindy, Dennis, Katrina, Rita, Tammy and Wilma. Only the hurricane seasons of 2004 and 1916 saw more landfalling storms, with eight each. If Beta makes a landfall as forecast in Texas this week, it will be the ninth storm to make landfall in the continental United States this year, tying the 1916 record, Klotzbach tweeted on Saturday.6 – Greek names used for tropical storms that season: Tropical Storm Alpha, Hurricane Beta, Tropical Storm Gamma, Tropical Storm Delta and Hurricane Epsilon. 3 – Category 5 hurricanes: Katrina, Rita and Wilma. In terms of overall hurricane intensity, the 2020 season has been much lower than 2005.1 – Storm discovered in the after-season analysis.Read or Share this story: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2020/09/20/hurricane-season-2020-greek-alphabet-reminiscent-2005/5838748002/Find New & Used CarsNew CarsUsed CarsofPowered by Cars.com
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2020 Subaru Legacy review: A feature-rich sedan with a vanilla wrapper – Roadshow

It won’t win any fashion contests, but the Legacy’s real beauty is found within. Jon Wong/Roadshow Despite not looking all that different, the 2020 Subaru Legacy pictured here is a brand-new sedan. And while it might not stir emotions with its design, those who look beneath the conservative sheet metal will discover a spacious interior…

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It won’t win any fashion contests, but the Legacy’s real beauty is found within.
Jon Wong/Roadshow
Despite not looking all that different, the 2020 Subaru Legacy pictured here is a brand-new sedan. And while it might not stir emotions with its design, those who look beneath the conservative sheet metal will discover a spacious interior chock full of new technology, not to mention a more robust chassis that makes the Legacy much nicer to drive.

LikeStandard all-wheel driveCushy ride comfortMassive infotainment screen

Don’t LikeBland exterior stylingBase engine is somewhat gutless

Beneath the skinThe 2020 Legacy rides on Subaru’s new global platform that also underpins the Ascent, Crosstrek, Forester, Impreza and Outback. This stiffer, stronger frame forms the bones of a sedan that’s about the same size as before, with a 108.3-inch wheelbase.
2020 Subaru Legacy: Sleepy styling, but filled with substance
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For those hoping the stiffer platform translates to tighter, more responsive handling, I’m sorry to say that’s not the case. Tossing the Legacy Sport into curves, you’ll experience some dive under braking and a bit of controlled roll at turn in. The car’s road-holding abilities are just OK through bends, but pushing it moderately hard results in howls from the 18-inch Yokohama Avid GT BluEarth tires. Even with the most aggressive Sport Sharp drive mode activated, the Legacy’s steering is numb off center, though weight builds progressively as you turn. The brakes boast strong initial bite at the top of the pedal stroke and are easy to modulate.

Where the Legacy really shines, though, is in the ride comfort department. The softer-sprung suspension and 50-series sidewall tires are great for comfy jogs around town, smoothing out impacts from bumps and ruts along the way.Updated base and new turbo engine optionsThe 2020 Legacy has a new 2.4-liter turbo engine option that replaces the old boxer-six. Rated at 260 horsepower and 277 pound-feet of torque, it’s the same turbocharged flat-four you’ll find in the Ascent and Outback.

The 2.5-liter flat-four should return 35 mpg on the highway with all-wheel drive.
Jon Wong/Roadshow
My Sport trim, however, rocks an updated version of Subaru’s 2.5-liter naturally aspirated boxer-four with 182 hp and 176 lb-ft, mated to a continuously variable transmission and standard all-wheel drive. In the Sport Sharp setting, the engine delivers adequate grunt to get the Legacy hustling up to speed for highway merging. With the car in the default Intelligent mode, however, and acceleration is leisurely at best.

The Legacy’s CVT does a fairly seamless job of switching between ratios so the engine won’t annoyingly buzz like mad during wide-open throttle applications. Opting to change ratios yourself via the steering wheel paddles can be done, too, but the responses are so frustratingly muted that it’s best to let the computers handle “shifting.”As for fuel economy, the base drivetrain setup returns an EPA-estimated 27 miles per gallon in the city and 35 mpg on the highway. That’s not shabby considering the Legacy comes standard with all-wheel drive.The cabin is comfortable and cleanly styled.
Jon Wong/Roadshow
Clean styling with fresh techThe Legacy is unquestionably understated compared to more fashionable midsize sedans like the latest Honda Accord, Hyundai Sonata, Mazda6 and Nissan Altima. Even with the Sport model’s additional touches like its unique grille, black mirror caps, black wheels and trunk spoiler, the car simply gets lost in the crowd. Then again, if you prefer to fly under the radar, this might be the sedan for you.Things do get more interesting inside, at least. The Legacy’s cabin is airy with a lot of glass letting in oodles of natural light. There’s generous room for passengers up front or in back, with the latter gaining an additional 1.4 inches of legroom compared to the old Legacy. The interior has a relatively straightforward design and everything is built from high-quality materials with leather-wrapped, soft-touch and nicely stitched surfaces throughout. Even the hard-plastic portions feel sturdy and are nicely finished. The seats are cushy, there are numerous cubbies to stash things and the trunk, with 15.1 cubic feet of space, will swallow just about anything you throw at it.The 11.6-inch display is colorful and easy to use.
Jon Wong/Roadshow
There’s a massive, 11.6-inch center touchscreen housing the Subaru Multimedia Plus infotainment system. It’s packed full of goodies such as a TomTom navigation system, Wi-Fi hotspot, Apple CarPlay, Android Auto, satellite radio and Bluetooth. While those occupy the middle portion of the display, the bottom houses climate adjustments like fan speed, vent settings and three-stage heated front seats. For the most part, I like the intuitive infotainment interface. It’s got big, clearly labeled icons and quickly swaps pages between different menu screens. Thankfully, Subaru doesn’t put everything in the touchscreen, with a couple of knobs and a few hard buttons on the side to adjust radio volume, tuning and cabin temperature.On the driver-assistance technology front, every Legacy comes standard with Subaru’s EyeSight suite of features including adaptive cruise control, lane-keeping assist with lane-centering and pedestrian detection. My test car is also outfitted with available blind-spot monitoring, reverse automatic braking and lane-change assist that all work as advertised.How I’d spec itAfter spending a week with the serviceable, but slightly underwhelming base engine, my ideal Subaru Legacy would have to have the turbo. I’d go with the Limited XT that begins at $35,095, including $900 for destination. With options like heated seats, a heated steering wheel, blind-spot monitoring and rear cross-traffic alert standard, I’d leave it at that and be happy as a clam. It’s a fair amount more than the $30,090 car reviewed here, but trust me, if you can swing the turbo, get it.The Legacy offers solid all-wheel-drive value.
Jon Wong/Roadshow
All-wheel drive value playMidsize sedan entries offering all-wheel drive aren’t as sparse as before with the Nissan Altima and Toyota Camry now available with this tech, though the Legacy remains the only one in the category with it standard. And with its $23,645 base price, the Subaru is the most affordable option if you are on the hunt for a midsize sedan with power going to all four wheels. To get all-wheel drive in the Altima you’ll have to part with at least $26,575, while the Camry will set you back $27,365 to start.Yes, the Legacy lacks standout style and isn’t a hoot behind the wheel, but it’s a very well-rounded, comfortable sedan, packed with tech and features a spacious cabin at an affordable price point. It won’t set hearts ablaze, but those are nevertheless some strong merits to stand on.

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Trixie Mattel’s Twangy Cover, Aquihayaquihay’s Sunny Future, And More Songs We Love

Allan Villanueva / Getty Images The search for the ever-elusive “bop” is difficult. Playlists and streaming-service recommendations can only do so much. They often leave a lingering question: Are these songs really good, or are they just new? Enter Bop Shop, a hand-picked selection of songs from the MTV News team. This weekly collection doesn’t…

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Allan Villanueva / Getty Images

The search for the ever-elusive “bop” is difficult. Playlists and streaming-service recommendations can only do so much. They often leave a lingering question: Are these songs really good, or are they just new?
Enter Bop Shop, a hand-picked selection of songs from the MTV News team. This weekly collection doesn’t discriminate by genre and can include anything — it’s a snapshot of what’s on our minds and what sounds good. We’ll keep it fresh with the latest music, but expect a few oldies (but goodies) every once in a while, too. Get ready: The Bop Shop is now open for business.

Aquihayaquihay: “Sencillo”

Something is frayed on “Sencillo,” the wonderfully languid latest effort from self-described “anti-boy band” Aquihayaquihay. As much as Steve Aoki’s label signees sound embattled as they sing in Spanish, the sounds themselves direct the song’s emotionality toward hope. Embracing both modern bedroom-production hallmarks and an exploration of past R&B-pop sounds, “Sencillo” plays like a completely welcome meeting of past and present while also pointing to a sunny future. —Patrick Hosken

Trixie Mattel: “Video Games”

Trixie Mattel opened up a beer and said, “Get over here and play my ‘Video Games.'” The RuPaul’s Drag Race legend takes her body to Pioneertown and gives Lana Del Rey’s 2011 melancholy single an Old West country-music twist. The dramatic cover features Trixie strumming her trusty autoharp, but it also serves cowboy shootout realness with some ominous desert outlaw whistles. We hope you like the bad girls, honey, because Trixie really brought it with this cover. Lana Del Rey? More like Lana Del SLAY. —Chris Rudolph

Kristen Ford: “Stick Shift Corolla”

Nashville-based alt rocker Kristen Ford piles on the breakup feels in this moody track from No Plans, her new EP. Tension grows verse by angst-fueled verse. “I don’t want you back / Time don’t work like that,” Ford insists, although if the explosive guitar and drums punctuating the final verse are any indication, that realization doesn’t undo the hurt that’s been done. —Sam Manzella

Lulu Simon: “Strangers”

Pop music has a new rising star, and she comes from a pretty impressive pedigree. On her new single “Strangers,” Lulu Simon, daughter of Paul Simon and Edie Brickell, gets breezily bitter about an ex who can’t quite accept that a relationship has met its expiration. Over a stacked production of ’80s synths and electronica pops, Simon’s lyrics read like a diary or a heated string of texts — you know, the unhinged ones you send in quick succession to a friend when you’ve got some feelings and you’ve got to get them out. Considering that her sarcastic yet sweet debut “Wasted” is just as much of a bop, it looks like there’s more where that came from. —Carson Mlnarik

Cautious Clay: “Agreeable”

Cautious Clay’s voice is smooth, his arms are open wide, and on “Agreeable,” he sounds about a thousand miles high. Much like “Cheesin’,” the virtual posse cut he anchored earlier this year, the elastic artist stretches and flexes in equal measure here — but the party’s over in just two minutes. Before you know, you’re back on the ground. You might not even know you left it. —Patrick Hosken

John K: “Happiness”

The lyrical melancholy of the emerging pop crooner John K’s latest single betrays its peppy title. Here, “Happiness” functions less like an expression of joy than a painful reminder of better days long gone: “Happiness, are you there? / Are you gone? Are you comin’ back?” Yet, delivered by a voice that a new listener might mistake for Troye Sivan or Sam Smith, it seems pleasant all the same. —Coco Romack

Bosco: “4th of July”

The chorus finds Bosco directing your gaze upwards — “Bombs bursting into the sky” — but even fireworks on Independence Day might have a hard time keeping your attention in this plush ecosystem populated with silken guitar waves and a treasure chest full of booming R&B rhythm. Don’t let the title fool you; this is a leafy autumn song through and through. —Patrick Hosken

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Cautious Clay
Trixie Mattel
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