Coral reefs are threatened by the acidification of the oceans
Climate change is devastating our seas and frozen regions as never before, a major new United Nations report warns.According to a UN panel of scientists, waters are rising, the ice is melting, and species are moving habitat due to human activities.And the loss of permanently frozen lands threatens to unleash even more carbon, hastening the decline.There is some guarded hope that the worst impacts can be avoided, with deep and immediate cuts to carbon emissions.This is the third in a series of special reports that have been produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) over the past 12 months.
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Media captionA visit to the Sermilik glacier, which is rapidly melting
The scientists previously looked at how the world would cope if temperatures rose by 1.5C by the end of this century. They also reported on how the lands of the Earth would be affected by climate change. However, this new study, looking at the impact of rising temperatures on our oceans and frozen regions, is perhaps the most worrying and depressing of the three.
So what have they found and how bad is it?In a nutshell, the waters are getting warmer, the world’s ice is melting rapidly, and these have implications for almost every living thing on the planet.”The blue planet is in serious danger right now, suffering many insults from many different directions and it’s our fault,” said Dr Jean-Pierre Gattuso, a co-ordinating lead author of the report.
Low-lying small island states will be badly hit by sea level rise
The scientists are “virtually certain” that the global ocean has now warmed without pause since 1970.The waters have soaked up more than 90% of the extra heat generated by humans over the past decades, and the rate at which it has taken up this heat has doubled since 1993.Where the seas were once rising mainly due to thermal expansion, the IPCC says this is now happening principally because of the melting of Greenland and Antarctica.
Qaleraliq glacier, southern Greenland
Thanks to warming, the loss of mass from the Antarctic ice sheet in the years between 2007 and 2016 tripled compared to the 10 years previously. Greenland saw a doubling of mass loss over the same period. The report expects this to continue throughout the 21st Century and beyond. For glaciers in areas like the tropical Andes, Central Europe and North Asia, the projections are that they will lose 80% of their ice by 2100 under a high carbon emissions scenario. This will have huge consequences for millions of people.
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Glaciers around the world are losing their ice fast
What are the implications of all this melting ice?All this extra water gushing down to the seas is driving up average ocean water levels around the world. That will continue over the decades to come. This new report says that global average sea levels could increase by up to 1.1m by 2100, in the worst warming scenario. This is a rise of 10cm on previous IPCC projections because of the larger ice loss now happening in Antarctica. “What surprised me the most is the fact that the highest projected sea level rise has been revised upwards and it is now 1.1 metres,” said Dr Jean-Pierre Gattuso, from the CNRS, France’s national science agency.”This will have widespread consequences for low lying coasts where almost 700 million people live and it is worrying.”
Sea level rise was once mainly due to thermal expansion of the oceans, but the melting of Greenland and Antarctica has now taken over as the principle driver
The report says clearly that some island states are likely to become uninhabitable beyond 2100. The scientists also say that relocating people away from threatened communities is worth considering “if safe alternative localities are available”.What will these changes mean for you?One of the key messages is the way that the warming of the oceans and cryosphere (the icy bits on land) is part of a chain of poor outcomes that will affect millions of people well into the future. Under higher emissions scenarios, even wealthy megacities such as New York or Shanghai and large tropical agricultural deltas such as the Mekong will face high or very high risks from sea level rise.
The report says that a world with severely increased levels of warm water will in turn give rise to big increases in nasty and dangerous weather events, such as surges from tropical cyclones. “Extreme sea level events that are historically rare (once per century in the recent past) are projected to occur frequently (at least once per year) at many locations by 2050,” the study says, even if future emissions of carbon are cut significantly.”What we are seeing now is enduring and unprecedented change,” said Prof Debra Roberts, a co-chair of an IPCC working group II.
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Media captionNasa visualisation of the melting Greenland ice sheet
“Even if you live in an inland part of the world, the changes in the climate system, drawn in by the very large changes in the ocean and cryosphere are going to impact the way you live your life and the opportunities for sustainable development.”The ways in which you may be affected are vast – flood damage could increase by two or three orders of magnitude. The acidification of the oceans thanks to increased CO2 is threatening corals, to such an extent that even at 1.5C of warming, some 90% will disappear. Species of fish will move as ocean temperatures rise. Seafood safety could even be compromised because humans could be exposed to increased levels of mercury and persistent organic pollutants in marine plants and animals. These pollutants are released from the same fossil fuel burning that release the climate warming gas CO2.Even our ability to generate electricity will be impaired as warming melts the glaciers, altering the availability of water for hydropower.
The melting of permafrost could add billions of tonnes of CO2 to the atmosphere
Permafrost not so permanentHuge amounts of carbon are stored in the permanently frozen regions of the world such as in Siberia and Northern Canada.These are likely to change dramatically, with around 70% of the near surface permafrost set to thaw if emissions continue to rise. The big worry is that this could free up “tens to hundreds of billions of tonnes” of CO2 and methane to the atmosphere by 2100. This would be a significant limitation on our ability to limit global warming in the centuries to come.So what happens in the long term?That’s a key question and much depends on what we do in the near term to limit emissions. However, there are some warnings in the report that some changes may not be easily undone. Data from Antarctica suggests the onset of “irreversible ice sheet instability” which could see sea level rise by several metres within centuries.
Climate change might force species to move their ranges
“We give this sea level rise information to 2300, and the reason for that is that there is a lot of change locked in, to the ice sheets and the contribution that will have to sea level rise,” said Dr Nerilie Abram from the Australian National University in Canberra, who’s a contributing lead author on the report.”So even in a scenario where we can reduce greenhouse gases, there are still future sea level rise that people will have to plan for.”There may also be significant and irreversible loses of cultural knowledge through the fact that the fish species that indigenous communities rely on may move to escape warming.Does the report offer some guarded hope?Definitely. The report makes a strong play of the fact that the future of our oceans is still in our hands. The formula is well worn at this stage – deep, rapid cuts in carbon emissions in line with the IPCC report last year that required 45% reductions by 2030. “If we reduce emissions sharply, consequences for people and their livelihoods will still be challenging, but potentially more manageable for those who are most vulnerable,” said Hoesung Lee, chair of the IPCC.Indeed, some of the scientists involved in the report believe that public pressure on politicians is a crucial part of increasing ambition. “After the demonstrations of young people last week, I think they are the best chance for us,,” said Dr Jean-Pierre Gattuso.”They are dynamic, they are active I am hopeful they will continue their actions and they will make society change.”Follow Matt on Twitter.What is your question on the IPCC report? Email: [email protected] can also send your question in the following ways:
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European leaders seized more power during the pandemic. Few have ‘exit plans’ to hand it back
The move was seen as controversial by some of Macron’s liberal allies: after all, instructing your citizens to be home by a certain time and tracking their medical information is hardly consistent with France’s liberal traditions. It wasn’t long ago that the French president was extolling the values of democracy. Speaking to the US Congress…
The move was seen as controversial by some of Macron’s liberal allies: after all, instructing your citizens to be home by a certain time and tracking their medical information is hardly consistent with France’s liberal traditions.
Macron’s loosening relationship with democracy doesn’t stop at tracking who’s been injected and forcing people indoors. Throughout the pandemic, the president has reduced the role that his parliament plays in scrutinizing his policy announcements.
“Parliament’s role in France is more limited under the new state of health emergency than before,” said Joelle Grogan, senior lecturer in UK public and EU law at the University of Middlesex. “There is no obligation for governments and administrations to send copies of orders they adopt to parliament.”
France is not the only EU nation that has backslid on democracy.
In Austria, Slovenia, Belgium and Lithuania to name a few, there is serious concern that governments have misused existing laws to restrict the liberty of citizens. In fact, DRI listed only Spain out of the 27 EU member states as a country of “no concern” when it came to parliamentary or legal oversight of Covid measures.
The most egregious example probably comes from Hungary, where the government passed legislation that allowed it to rule by decree with no judicial review.
Courts in Cyprus and the Czech Republic claimed to have no jurisdiction over coronavirus measures. This significantly reduced moves to safeguard any attempted government overreach.
A central concern of DRI’s report is that few European countries have a clear “exit plan” for ending states of emergency and returning to normal ways of governance.
This is a real concern in the case of France. Phillippe Marlière, professor of French and European politics at University College London, notes that in recent years, France has introduced numerous states of emergency in response to terror attacks. Many of the measures introduced at these times concerning personal liberty have remained in place.
“I would bet that a lot of the illiberal measures that have come in under Covid, like the health pass and threats of curfews will remain in place or be seen again,” he said. “Politicians are very good at taking authority but less good at handing it back.”
There is particular concern among some that Macron, who is facing election next year, might see keeping a tight grip on power as advantageous.
“The French president has more power on paper than the American [resident. He can control the police, the army, all domestic policy, all foreign policy. He even appoints his own prime minister,” said Marlière. “This, combined with someone seeking re-election who is already shifting to the right on issues like Islam with no real oversight is very concerning.”
More worryingly, the DRI report also states that only five EU member states — the Czech Republic, France, Lithuania, the Netherlands and Portugal — have adequate exit strategies for a return to normal.
“It’s far easier to govern by decree than to govern within limits, so it’s obvious why leaders would want to hang onto powers,” said Grogan, who also noted that undermining the rule of law has been a problem within the EU for some time.
In recent years, Hungary and Poland had both abused the rule of law to such an extent that article 7 of the EU’s treaty, which, if approved by all member states, would restrict both nations’ voting rights with the EU and restrict access to EU money, has been triggered against both.
The problem is that both Hungary and Poland are able to veto actions against the other, rendering the EU somewhat toothless. “What happens next is the big problem. We can talk about legal mechanisms and the laws. But ultimately we need political consensus,” Grogan adds.
Last summer, Brussels tried to force Hungary and Poland to fall in line though a mechanism in the EU’s long-term budget, but ultimately choked at the last minute and agreed a fudge in order to get the bloc’s Covid recovery funds approved.
That was two member states. What happens when it’s many more is a real unknown for the EU.
“Fundamentally, the EU is a legal structure. It exists to obligate mutual rights between states and citizens,” said Grogan. “But it would be remiss to ignore the complexity beyond that. As Brexit proved it is a group of states deciding to be part of the club. Brexit showed us you can leave, but the problem is if someone doesn’t accept the values and doesn’t want to leave, it is legally impossible to remove a state.”
Where this ends is anyone’s guess. The EU is unlikely to fall apart, as many have predicted, but it is possible that Euroskeptics across the bloc can force changes that undermine the whole thing. And if you were looking for a way to destabilize the EU, making a mockery of the rule of law would be a good place to start.
“We’re seeing, as usual with emergencies, a shift of power towards the executive with oversight from parliaments, judiciary and other bodies getting weaker,” said Jakub Jaraczewski, research coordinator at DRI.
“The EU could work towards better legal oversight — be it through the Commission, the Fundamental Rights Agency or even through the Court of Justice. But that would require political will from the leadership in member states for the central EU to take control of policy areas they prefer to keep close to their chests.”
It’s sometimes said that EU law is a complicated mess of narrow political interests dressed in a legal cloak. Those narrow political interests have had a greater impact on the bloc’s direction of travel than the ideals that supposedly unite 27 vastly different nations.
For the best part of a decade, member states bickering over precisely what Europe should be and how it should respond to crises has been the hardest thing for the EU to navigate. The disregard for law, however, is a more fundamental headache than disagreements on migration or how money should be spent.
When politics returns to something resembling normal, Brussels might find itself with more than just Poland and Hungary on the naughty step. And if these recent delinquents decide that their newfound powers matter more to them than keeping their EU neighbors happy, there is very little that EU grandees can do to stop the fallout destabilizing the whole bloc.
Thousands evacuated as powerful Cyclone Tauktae threatens Indian region grappling with Covid
Tropical Cyclone Tauktae, which formed in the Arabian Sea, is moving northward along India’s western coast, bringing damaging winds, heavy rain and the threat of storm surges to the state of Gujarat. The storm is packing maximum sustained winds of 205 kilometers per hour (127 mph), according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. That’s equivalent…
The storm is packing maximum sustained winds of 205 kilometers per hour (127 mph), according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. That’s equivalent to a strong Category 3 Atlantic hurricane and just shy of Category 4 strength, which begins at 209 kph (130 mph).
Tauktae has killed at least six people in southern Goa and Karnataka states.
At least two people died Sunday as a result of the storm, which caused heavy rainfall in Goa, the state’s chief minister Pramod Sawant said at a news conference.
“One boy died due to a tree falling on his head and the second death, two people were on a motorcycle when an electric pole fell on them and one died on the way to the hospital,” Sawant said.
In Karnataka, four people died, 216 houses were damaged and 253 people sought shelter in relief camps due to the cyclone as of Sunday evening, according to data from the Karnataka State Disaster Management Authority.
A rescue operation was conducted in Karnataka Monday, after two tug boats capsized Saturday with 10 people aboard. One body was recovered Saturday and the coast guard and navy rescued five people. The remaining four were stranded overnight but were airlifted by a navy helicopter, according to the coast guard on Monday.
Rescue and repair efforts are also underway in Kerala state, where several districts are on red alert for extremely heavy rainfall following strong winds and rain that damaged houses, downed trees, cut power lines and brought flooding as the cyclone moved northwest up the coast.
Rains over 200 millimeters (8 inches) have fallen in parts of India’s west coast and an additional 200 millimeters is possible in and around the Gujarat peninsula, according to CNN Weather. The threat to lives and property is likely to increase with storm surges expected between 1.5 and 3 meters (5 to 10 feet) in and around the landfall.
“If you head down to southern India, the town of Koch in Kerala — already over 500 millimeters of rainfall,” Sater added. “So communities have (already) been dealing with massive flooding, evacuations, downed trees, power outages. It’s a massive undertaking.”
India’s National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) said it has deployed more than 100 teams across six coastal states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu to help with evacuations and relief and rescue measures. Some 22 teams have been readied for back up, according to Satya Pradhan, director general of the NDRF.
“The main impact state will be Gujarat, and that’s where we expect maximum impact,” Pradhan said, adding that more than 50 teams had been deployed to that region alone.
In addition, the Indian Coast Guard and Navy have also deployed ships and helicopters for search and rescue operations.
Covid vaccines suspended, patients evacuated
The cyclone comes as India battles a devastating second wave of Covid-19, with millions infected across the country in the past month and hospitals running out of oxygen and medicine. Thousands are dying every day.
Vaccinations have been suspended across Gujarat for Monday and Tuesday, and the state’s chief minister, Vijay Rupani, has asked officials to ensure electricity supplies to Covid-19 hospitals and other medical facilities are not disrupted and the supply of oxygen is maintained, the state government said, according to Reuters.
“The state government is completely ready to deal with the Tauktae cyclone,” Rupani said Monday. “People in 655 villages have been identified across 17 districts for evacuation. More than 100,000 people have been evacuated.”
Rupani urged Gujarat residents to “remain indoors considering the possibility of heavy rains along with cyclone in the state.”
In Mumbai, 580 Covid patients from “jumbo centers” — the city’s makeshift coronavirus care centers — were shifted to various hospitals ahead of the storm on Friday and Saturday, a statement from the city’s municipal corporation said.
The state government said it has also “taken adequate precautions to ensure continuous electricity and oxygen supply to hospitals.”
On Saturday, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi directed senior officials to “ensure special preparedness on Covid management in hospitals, vaccine cold chain and other medical facilities on power back up and storage of essential medicines and to plan for unhindered movement of oxygen tankers,” according to a statement.
After making landfall, the cyclone is expected to lose some of its wind strength, CNN meteorologist Sater said. But heavy rainfall is still expected to continue to move into the high terrain of northern India.
CNN’s Gene Norman, Swati Gupta, Akanksha Sharma, Manveena Suri and Derek Van Dam contributed reporting.
‘Money, Explained’ and more of what you need this weekend
All right, yes, I also like having it.’Money, Explained’Get-rich-quick schemes. Swindlers. Chasing the American dream. Money — and how we need it, don’t have it and maybe could get it — is never far from the mind.Netflix made note of that and has blessed us with this new docuseries.”We spend it, borrow it and save…
All right, yes, I also like having it.
Netflix made note of that and has blessed us with this new docuseries.
Mo’ money, mo’ problems? I am personally willing to risk it.
The series currently is streaming.
‘The Underground Railroad’
Academy Award-winner Barry Jenkins has adapted a Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Colson Whitehead into a new limited series.
But there is a twist.
The series starts streaming Friday on Amazon Prime.
He was one of the first international superstars of fashion and now, more than 30 years after his death, he’s getting the biopic treatment.
The limited series starts streaming on Netflix Friday.
Two things to listen to:
“Daddy’s Home” is the sixth and latest album from the artist known as St. Vincent.
It’s inspired by her father’s decade-long stint in prison for a white-collar financial crime.
The new album drops Friday.
If you ever have been to a J. Cole concert, you know that the rapper has a tendency to perform all the tracks from his current album.
As of Friday, he will have some new material.
The North Carolina native is releasing his latest studio project, “The Off-Season.”
Can’t wait for the next tour.
One thing to talk about:
The ripples of the #MeToo movement still are being felt.
Franco has denied claims that he was inappropriate and sexually exploitative with multiple women over the years.
But Rogen’s stance is a reminder that Hollywood takes claims seriously.
Something to sip on
Can we get to the next season of “The Real Housewives of Atlanta” already?!
Here’s the deal: Businessman Simon Guobadia and his wife, Falynn, were introduced on the Bravo reality series this season — with her being listed as Williams’ “friend” in their first scenes.
“What we have is what we wish every single one of you out there — happiness. So when I asked … she said yes,” Guobadia now has said of his relationship with Williams.
For the record, Williams said their relationship began a month ago.
Yes, you read that correctly.
It’s unclear as to whether the Guobadias are legally divorced yet, but either way it all adds up to some possible not-to-miss content for Season 14.
“Real Housewives” maestro Andy Cohen is somewhere smiling so hard right now.